Combatting Illicit Trade
What influences consumer behaviours?
Combatting Illicit Trade: Consumer Motivations and Stakeholder Strategies
Combatting Illicit Trade is the culmination of a year’s worth of research conducted by Oxford Economics’ Thought Leadership team and an advisory panel of distinguished experts. The research spans 37 European countries, polling over 45,000 consumers, executives, policy-makers and law enforcement officers to learn what motivates consumers to engage in illicit activity and the strategies that can alter their behaviour. We also carried out in-depth interviews with 15 leading executives, academics and policy-makers to provide expert commentary on the findings. The study covers five product categories:
- Cigarettes and tobacco
- Alcoholic drinks
- Films, music and video games
- Clothing and accessories
- Medicines and pharmaceutical products
The research presents an unprecedented amount of survey evidence, analysing the motivations and actions of those involved in illicit trade today, investigating:
- What specific issues compel consumers to buy goods illicitly, and how those motivations differ by product category, country, and other demographic parameters
- How policy-makers and law enforcement officers prioritise activities to thwart illicit trade, and how those activities align with consumer motivation
- Where the gaps are between consumer motivations and the actions of businesses, policy-makers and law enforcers
- Best practices and lessons learned from executives in combatting illicit trade
This independent study was financed by PMI IMPACT, a global grant initiative by Philip Morris International to support projects dedicated to fighting illegal trade and related crimes.