Educated in Italy and at the Universities of London (LSE), Paris and Oxford. From 1966 to 1977 at the OECD’s Department of Economics and Statistics. In 1973-74 Japan Foundation Fellow at the Research Institute of the Economic Planning Agency, Tokyo. From 1977 to 2007, Fellow and Tutor in Economics at Magdalen College, University of Oxford.
Since 2008 Emeritus Fellow. At various stages, consultant to the World Bank, the OECD and member of the Academic Council of the IFO Institute, Munich, as well as Visiting Professor in various European universities. Has been a Member of the Board of Finmeccanica, is a Director of Oxford Economics and has lectured on world and European economic developments to various private sector corporations, including ABB, Anglo American, Arthur Andersen, FIAT, Ericsson, Generali, IBM, KPMG, Pirelli, Siemens, Stora Enso, Volvo, etc.